Lietuva pagal Trompenaars Hampden-Turner nacionalinių kultūrų skirtumų modelį (2024-03-20)

„Trompenaars’s model of national culture differences is a framework for cross-cultural communication applied to general business and management, developed by Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner. This involved a large-scale survey of 8,841 managers and organization employees from 43 countries.
This model of national culture differences has seven dimensions. There are five orientations covering the ways in which human beings deal with each other, one which deals with time, and one which deals with the environment.“

1. Universalism vs Particularism

Įvertinimas: 7 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania have a strong orientation towards relationships.“

„Universalist societies are based on rules: their members tend to feel that general rules and obligations are a strong source of moral reference. They are inclined to follow the rules and look for “the one best way” of dealing equally and fairly with all cases (even when friends are involved). They assume that their standards are the right standards, and they attempt to change the attitudes of others to match theirs.

Particularist societies are predominatly based on relationships: particular circumstances that lead to exceptions are more important than rules. Bonds of exceptional relationships (family, friends) are stronger than any abstract rules, therefore the response to a situation may change according to the circumstances and the people involved. The members of particularist/relationship based societies often argue “it all depends.”


„Universalism vs particularism
Universalism is the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification, while particularism is the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied. It asks the question, What is more important, rules or relationships? Cultures with high universalism see one reality and focus on formal rules. Business meetings are characterized by rational, professional arguments with a “get down to business” attitude. Trompenaars research found there was high universalism in countries like the United States, Canada, UK, Australia, Germany, and Sweden. Cultures with high particularism see reality as more subjective and place a greater emphasis on relationships. It is important to get to know the people one is doing business with during meetings in a particularist environment. Someone from a universalist culture would be wise not to dismiss personal meanderings as irrelevancies or mere small talk during such business meetings. Countries that have high particularism include Venezuela, Indonesia, China, South Korea, and the former Soviet Union.

2. Individualism vs Communitarianism

Įvertinimas: 80 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania are oriented towards the individual.“

„This dimension is about the conflict between an individual’s personal desires and the interests of the group to which one belongs to. Do people primarily regard themselves as individuals or as part of a group?

In a predominantly individualistic culture, people are expected to make their own decisions and to only take care of themselves and their immediate family. Personal freedom and individual development are the fundamental to get a higher quality of life. Decisions are often made on the spot, without consultation, and deadlocks may be resolved by voting.

In contrast to this, members of a predominantly group oriented society place the interest of the community before the individual, whose main responsibility is to serve the group. By doing so, individual needs will be taken care of naturally. The quality of life for the individual is seen as directly dependent on the degree to which he or she takes care of fellow members, even at the cost of individual freedom. People are are mainly oriented towards common goals and objectives. They are judged by the extent to which they serve the interest of the community, that provides help and protection in exchange for a strong sense of loyalty. Negotiation is often carried out by teams, who may withdraw in order to consult with reference groups. In the decision making process, discussion is used to reach consensus.“


„Individualism refers to people regarding themselves as individuals, while communitarianism refers to people regarding themselves as part of a group. Trompenaars research yielded some interesting results and suggested that cultures may change more quickly than many people realize. It may not be surprising to see a country like the United States with high individualism, but Mexico and the former communist countries of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union were also found to be individualistic in Trompenaars research. In Mexico, the shift from a previously communitarian culture could be explained with its membership in NAFTA and involvement in the global economy. This contrasts with Hofstede’s earlier research, which found these countries to be collectivist, and shows the dynamic and complex nature of culture. Countries with high communitarianism include Germany, China, France, Japan, and Singapore.

3. Specific vs Diffuse

Įvertinimas: 20 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania adopt a high personal involvement towards business.“

„Generally, people from specific oriented cultures begin by looking at each element of a situation. They concentrate on hard facts, analyze the elements separately, then put them back together again, viewing the whole as the sum of its parts.

People from diffusely oriented cultures see each element in the perspective of the complete picture. All elements are related to each other and they can be combined into a whole which is more than simply the sum of its parts.

This dimension also concerns the degree to which we involve others in relationships: do we engage them in specific areas of life and single levels of personality or do we involve them in multiple areas of our lives and several levels of personality at the same time?

Specifically oriented individuals are “low involvement”: they engage others in specific areas of life, affecting single levels of personality. In such cultures, a manager separates the task relationship with a subordinate from the private sphere.

Diffusely oriented individuals are “high involvement”: they engage others in multiple areas of life, displaying several levels of personality at the same time. In these cultures, every life space and every level of personality tends to be interwoven.“


„A specific culture is one in which individuals have a large public space they readily share with others and small private space guard closely and share with only close friends and associates. A diffuse culture is one in which public space and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully, because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well. It looks at how separate a culture keeps their personal and public lives. <...> give the following example which explains this:

An example of these specific and diffuse cultural dimensions is provided by the United States and Germany. A U.S. professor, such as Robert Smith, PhD, generally would be called “Doctor Smith” by students when at his U.S. university. When shopping, however, he might be referred to by the store clerk as “Bob,” and he might even ask the clerk’s advice regarding some of his intended purchases. When golfing, Bob might just be one of the guys, even to a golf partner who happens to be a graduate student in his department. The reason for these changes in status is that, with the specific U.S. cultural values, people have large public spaces and often conduct themselves differently depending on their public role. At the same time, however, Bob has private space that is off-limits to the students who must call him “Doctor Smith” in class. In high-diffuse cultures, on the other hand, a person’s public life and private life often are similar. Therefore, in Germany, Herr Professor Doktor Schmidt would be referred to that way at the university, local market, and bowling alley—and even his wife might address him formally in public. A great deal of formality is maintained, often giving the impression that Germans are stuffy or aloof.“

4. Neutral vs Affective / Neutral vs Emotional

Įvertinimas: 61 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania conceal rather than display emotions.“

„This dimension focuses on the degree to which people express emotions, and the interplay between reason and emotion in human relationships.

In affective cultures, emotions are spontanously displayed: moods and feelings aren’t hidden or bottled up. On the contrary, the expression of emotions is acceptable or even required, as a sign of sincerity, attachment to what you are doing and a factor of trust.

In the so called neutral cultures, people are more reserved and don’t openly display emotions as they are taught that it is incorrect to overtly show them. Not expressing emotions is seen as a positive sign of self-control and reason dominates one’s interaction with others.


„A neutral culture is a culture in which emotions are held in check whereas an emotional culture is a culture in which emotions are expressed openly and naturally. Neutral cultures that come rapidly to mind are those of the Japanese and British. Some examples of high emotional cultures are the Netherlands, Mexico, Italy, Israel and Spain. In emotional cultures, people often smile, talk loudly when excited, and greet each other with enthusiasm. So, when people from neutral culture are doing business in an emotional culture they should be ready for a potentially animated and boisterous meeting and should try to respond warmly. As for those from an emotional culture doing business in a neutral culture, they should not be put off by a lack of emotion.“

5. Achievement vs Ascription

Įvertinimas: 64 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania strive to achieve more than use your given status.“

„This dimension focuses on how personal status is assigned.

In “achievement-oriented” societies the status is a reflection of performance, of what an individual does and has accomplished. In short, “you are what you do.”

On the other hand, in the so called “ascribed” cultures, status is a reflection of what you are and how the other individual within a group (community and/or organization) relate to you. Factors like age, class, gender, education, etcetera are fundamental in attributing status. In short, taking it to the extreme, in this type of culture “you are what you are from birth.”


„In an achievement culture, people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions. In an ascription culture, status is based on who or what a person is. Does one have to prove themself to receive status or is it given to them? Achievement cultures include the US, Austria, Israel, Switzerland and the UK. Some ascription cultures are Venezuela, Indonesia, and China. When people from an achievement culture do business in an ascription culture it is important to have older, senior members with formal titles and respect should be shown to their counterparts. However, for an ascription culture doing business in an achievement culture, it is important to bring knowledgeable members who can prove to be proficient to other group, and respect should be shown for the knowledge and information of their counterparts.“

6. Sequential vs Synchronic

Įvertinimas: 76 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania have a high orientation to towards single tasking.“

„This dimension focuses on how people structure time, ranging from a sequential/single task approach to a synchronic/multi tasking one. In business, how people structure time is important with how we plan, strategize and co-ordinate our activities with others.

People who structure time and tasks sequentially view time as a series of passing events. They tend to do one thing at a time, and prefer planning and keeping to plans once they have been made. Time commitments are taken seriously and staying on schedule is a must.

On the other hand, synchronically oriented people view past, present, and future as being interrelated. They usually have a multi-tasking approach and do several things at once. For them, time is flexible and intangilble, therefore they are less concerned about what single-tasking cultures define as punctuality. Time commitments are desirable rather than absolute, plans are easily changed as more value is placed on the satisfactory completition of interaction with others.“


„A sequential time culture is the one in which the people like events to happen in a chronological order. The punctuality is very appreciated and they base their lives in schedules, plannification and specific and clear deadlines; in this kind of cultures time is very important and they do not tolerate the waste of time. Instead in synchronic cultures, they see specific time periods as interwoven periods, the use to highlight the importance of punctuality and deadlines if these are key to meeting objectives and they often work in several things at a time, they are also more flexible with the distribution of time and commitments.“

7. Internal vs External

Įvertinimas: 32 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania tend to go with the flow more than striving to take control.“

„This dimension concerns how people relate to the environment and the perceived degree of control over it.

Internally controlled people have a mechanistic view of nature: it can be dominated once one has understood how it functions by developing suitable instruments for influencing it. This mechanicistic view of the environment favors a feeling of internal control: people seek to take control of their lives and see their own internal perspective as the starting point for determining the ‘right’ action. In business this translates into a “technology push” attitude.

In contrast, cultures with an externally controlled (or organic) view of nature, assume that human beings are controlled by nature and unpredictable external forces such as fate, chance and the power of others. For this reason, they tend to “go with the flow” and orient their actions towards others. In business, this attitude leads to a “market pull” approach, that implies focusing on and responding to the environment and the need of the customers.“


„Do we control our environment or are we controlled by it? In inner directed culture, people believe in controlling outcomes and have a dominant attitude toward environment. In outer-directed culture, people believe in letting things take their own course and have a more flexible attitude, characterized by a willingness to compromise and maintain harmony with nature.“

8. Past, Present, Future

Įvertinimas: 38 iš 100.


„People from Lithuania are more future than past oriented.“

„This dimension reflects the relative importance given to past, present and future.

If a culture is predominantly oriented towards the past, the future is often seen as a repetition of past experiences.

In a culture predominantly oriented towards the present, day-by-day experiences tend to direct people’s lives.

In a future-oriented culture, most human activities are directed toward future prospects. In this case, the past is not considered to be vitally significant to the future.“

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