Apie „Graham’s hierarchy of disagreement“


Refuting the Central Point explicitly refutes the central point
Refutation finds the mistake and explains why it’s mistaken using quotes
Counterargument contradicts and then backs it up with reasoning and/or supporting evidence
Contradiction states the opposing case with little or no supporting evidence
Responding to Tone criticizes the tone of the writing without addressing the substance of the argument
Ad Hominem attacks the characteristics or authority of the writer without addressing the substance of the argument
Name-calling sounds something like, “You are an idiot.”


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